Bitmap (or raster) images are stored as a series of tiny dots called pixels. Each pixel is
actually a very small square that is assigned a color, and then arranged in a pattern to
form the image. When you zoom in on a bitmap image you can see the individual pixels
that make up that image. Bitmap graphics can be edited by erasing or changing the color
of individual pixels using a program such as Adobe Photoshop.
Unlike bitmaps, vector images are not based on pixel patterns, but instead use mathematical
formulas to draw lines and curves that can be combined to create an image from geometric
objects such as circles and polygons. Vector images are edited by manipulating the lines
and curves that make up the image using a program such as Adobe Illustrator.
Vector images have some important advantages over bitmap images. Vector images tend
to be smaller than bitmap images. That’s because a bitmap image has to store color
information for each individual pixel that forms the image. A vector image just has to store
the mathematical formulas that make up the image, which take up less space.
Vector images are also more scalable than bitmap images. When a bitmap image is
scaled up you begin to see the individual pixels that make up the image. This is most
noticeable in the edges of the image. There are ways of making these jagged edges
less noticeable but this often results in making the image blurry as well. When a vector
image is scaled up, the image is redrawn using the mathematical formula. The resulting
image is just as smooth as the original.
Unfortunately, vector formats are not well supported on the web. The two most popular
image formats used on the Web, GIF and JPEG are bitmap formats. Most vector
images must first be converted into bitmaps images (or rasterized) before they can be
used on the Web. An exception is the SWF format used to create animations using
Macromedia’s Flash animation software.
Bitmap formats are best for images that need to have a wide range of color gradations,
such as most photographs. Vector formats, on the other hand, are better for images
that consist of a few areas of solid color. Examples of images that are well suited for the
vector format include logos and type.